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‘Teachers unprepared for ADHD students’ Irish research study finds.
Five-year-old boy with ADHD and Behavioral Problems: Homeopathic Case Study
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Richie attends his first grade in a public elementary school. His mother is employed as a math teacher in a community based college and his father is an automobile mechanic. In addition the mother reported to have smoked 1. She have also reported to have moderately consumed alcohol while at the first month of her pregnancy. When the problems were first noticed or reported?
What parenting strategies do parents employ when Richie misbehave? His teacher reported that Riche is always fidgeting in his seat, throws items at other students and frequently leave his seat during classroom instruction. He was placed on discipline plan and his behavior was reportedly improved. Richie has been found climbing the roofs of the houses, running into the street without looking. When Riche misbehaved, his parents usually employed physical and verbal punishment to enforce discipline. Rewards for good behavior included play time and money.
In describing his peer relationships, mother indicated that Richie had always good friends in the neighborhood but they quickly become irritated with his aggressive behavior. The research had some difficulty identifying and recruiting interviewees. Barriers to interviewing parents from the Arab sector surrounded the stigma in Arab society on children with ADHD receiving medication. Parents we approached from the Arab population asked us to conduct the interviews discreetly because they were concerned about a negative stigma on their child if it became known that they took Ritalin.
It is important to note that the Arab community is conservative and has social taboos on subjects such as sexuality, learning disorders and other disorders [ 57 — 60 ]. Following is a quote that demonstrates this concern about a negative stigma, from a mother before her interview. Differently, the main barrier to interviews with teachers and counselors from the Jewish sector was lack of time.
To overcome these difficulties, the interviews with school staff were conducted after work hours and outside of school grounds. Who participates in the conversation with them? Is it you and the referring teacher? For instance, based on your experience, behavior that indicates a disorder, complaints from subject teachers. What would you tell me? What would you offer me?
In which parts? Please be specific. What would you tell me in the conversation: I will play the parent and you be yourself in the conversation. Do you believe it carries risks? If so, where do you get that information? The data was analyzed using content analysis, which attempts to present the full picture by simplification and categorization of the interviews. This analysis was conducted in several stages. The first stage was the initial coding of each subpopulation to create a coding frame so that the themes that arose from the groups of teachers, counselors and parents were integrated separately.
"I Couldn't Focus On Anything" : An ADHD Case Study - Harley Therapy™ Blog
The second stage was creating categories based on a number of broad characteristics containing the materials that belonged to that category. The third stage was building the subcategories, considered the smallest information units in the research structure. The fourth stage was an integrated analysis by identifying central themes that arose among the three groups under study [ 61 ].
After the data is organized by codes, a description of the data is written, and themes and interrelationships are synthesized. Ultimately tentative answers to research objectives are given, and meanings and themes are described.
The advantage of integrated analysis is that it provides flexibility in the research design by allowing constant movement between the categories and subcategories, to allow the researcher to achieve a design that provides the most comprehensive and credible representation of the studied phenomenon [ 62 , 63 ]. After conducting pilot interviews, changes were made in the protocols according to the initial findings.
All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The interviews that were conducted in Arabic were transcribed and translated into Hebrew by one of the researchers who is fluent in both languages. In order to validate the research, all of the raw materials were preserved, including recordings of the interviews, transcripts, field diaries and documentation from the collection of raw material, through the various stages of analysis, to the final findings and conclusions [ 64 ].
During the data analysis, the researchers read the transcripts and reached consensus regarding the themes. In addition, the selection of the research participants representing different subpopulations teachers, counselors and parents reinforces the validity and credibility of the findings.
You decide for yourself. You have to help him. It is ultimately for his own good. Consult doctors. And I illustrate, I do a kind of illustration with them.
No, so you drop it. He drops his attention. Focus, focusing on the question, willingness to learn, the availability to learn improves fivefold. I tell parents this is my experience. I say to the mother, send him to a test without Ritalin and see the result, instead of he might get According to them, diagnosis would help children who do not fit in in the classroom, who are unable to utilize their talents, and pay a heavy price both academically and socially.
Some of the teachers contradicted themselves by saying that they did not get into medical discussions with parents, and then illustrated with analogies how they explained the disorder to parents. Finally, use of fearmongering was found as an additional strategy. Teachers and counselors who had a child with ADHD in their family who was treated with medication, shared their personal experiences with the parents. According to the guidelines of the Israeli education system, medication for children with ADHD is under the sole responsibility of neurologists, psychiatrists and pediatricians, and educational staff do not have the authority to offer it or interfere with it.
Key findings from the present study indicate two main interventions by the educational staff in ADHD: one is encouraging diagnosis, and the other is encouraging medication. The interviews indicate that parents are in no hurry to medicate their children, and in most cases mount initial resistance to the idea.
This finding corresponds with the literature, according to which parents prefer non-medication therapeutic options [ 29 ], and tend not to comply with medication with stimulants [ 65 , 66 ]. Therefore, teachers and counselors in the present study often mentioned the importance of distinguishing between diagnosis and medication.
They made this distinction especially when parents objected to medicating their children. Accordingly, teachers and counselors in the present study acted to convince the parents first only to get a diagnosis, which draws less resistance, while emphasizing the difference between it and medication.
However, it should be noted that evidence of the impact of medication on the improvement of academic achievements of children with ADHD is in scientific dispute [ 35 , 36 ]. In addition, the educators and counselors use the strategy of normalization to encourage parents to medicate their children, arguing that medications for ADHD have become common in society. One of the most effective persuasion techniques is referral to social norms [ 71 — 74 ]. Perceived normative peer behaviors and attitudes have emerged as key predictors of health behaviors, and it is norms that are largely responsible for health behaviors.