On a reconnaissance flight over Cuba, an U aircraft took photos of the ground and discovered, that the Soviets had shipped some SS4 see III middle range missiles onto the island. These had a range of about miles and were not completely installed yet. The next morning, the President was informed about the discovery.
Instantly he arranged two meetings.
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The first one was to have a look at the photos himself. They agreed on three major directions, how the conflict could be solved:.
Free research essays on topics related to: cuban missile crisis
The American government also learned that more ships with more missiles were on their way to Cuba, too. If the whole problem had become public, a panic would have been very probable. The army chiefs recommended a surprising attack against the missiles, that could be followed by an invasion. But Kennedy could not agree to that solution until then. That meeting was long-planned. This meeting was a strange one, because the Americans did not know, if Gromyko knew, that they had discovered the missiles and so they did not ask him about them.
The 9 Most Important Lessons From the Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy just reminded. In the evening the EX-COMM members met again and were more and more convinced by the idea of a blockade instead of air-strikes. The blockade could only stop new missiles from arriving and would give the USA some diplomatic advantage, but they were still to deal with the missiles already there.
Kennedy had to return earlier from his trip, because a final decision between quarantine or air-strike had to be made. Kennedy preferred the blockade, because it would start in a minor category than the air-strikes. Kennedy met again with his top advisors and asked them if all missiles could be destroyed by an air-strike.
Cuban Missile Crisis Essay
It was decided, that Kennedy would use the word quarantine instead of blockade in his speech, because a blockade implements a military action. So the Americans would have their blockade with a legal touch. Also the press started learning about the situation in Cuba, but Kennedy told them to remain still for one more day, as he would talk to the public on the following evening.
During the day, many actions were taken to prepare the speech of the president in the evening.
Also all American allies were informed and about Navy ships were sent on their way to create a miles quarantine zone around Cuba. Add to cart. Index I. Introduction II. Situation on Cuba before III. The fourteen days IV. Soviet ambitions for missile deployment on Cuba V. Why did the crisis nearly escalate?
The Cuban Missile Crisis (article) | Khan Academy
How close was the war VIII. Why would an escalation probably have led to a 3rd world war? Follow up X.
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Our own Opinion-Conclusions XI. Additional Information XII. It would not have taken much of a misunderstanding or misinterpreted command to trigger at least an isolated use of nuclear weapons, which could then have ignited a full nuclear exchange.
gatsbybuild.co.uk/las-revelaciones-supremas.php Some participants in the crisis believed they might not ever see their loved ones again. There were several, which are also common to resolving other crises and conflict situations today. The Cuban missile crisis both directly and indirectly led to a number of improvements in the international strategic environment, including agreements to begin to restrain the competition in nuclear arms. This hotline continues in operation to this day.
In addition, the following year the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to ban above-ground nuclear testing. While this pact was also driven by increasing worldwide concerns over radioactive nuclear fallout in milk and other food supplies, a desire to reduce nuclear threats was the overriding factor. Over the following few years, the Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT , designed to halt the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries, was negotiated and signed, and the United States and Soviet Union took their first direct steps in nuclear arms control, starting with diplomatic discussions and then a summit in Glassboro, New Jersey, in The outcome was also a shot in the arm for U.
What lessons from the crisis are relevant today, and how might those lessons influence nuclear peacemaking in the years ahead? One is the need to avoid major strategic surprise. Third, it is essential that each party in a nuclear interaction put itself in the shoes of its opponent and ask why that country is behaving the way that it is. As successful as the missile crisis outcome was, more than one scholar has noted the failure of Kennedy and his senior advisers to ponder more fully why the Soviet Union was introducing the missiles to Cuba in the first place. Clearly, the Soviets also had not thought through how the Americans would react if their clandestine scheme came to light.
Further, each party needs to emerge from a high-stakes confrontation with a face-saving outcome. A confrontation can come to be seen as an end in itself, without recognition that other issues in the future will be indirectly influenced by the outcome of a current crisis. Knowing that the other side is not bent on absolute triumph and humiliation of the adversary improves the chances for win-win outcomes in the future.
In major-power confrontations, a strong military posture is essential for a country and can favorably influence diplomacy, as the American fleet did in this case. But it should always be used in support of diplomatic and political goals, and resorts to actual armed action should generally be considered as a later-stage instrument to be drawn upon only as necessary. Skillful diplomacy can also make military issues easier to resolve when military steps are required, such as winning agreement by allies and others to assist.
The tendency in a complex crisis to take the seemingly easy way out with a quick turn to military force should be avoided, and time allowed to give diplomacy a chance. The national security advisors to President Barack Obama and President-elect Donald Trump stood shoulder-to-shoulder on a stage at the U.
Institute of Peace yesterday and shook hands to a standing ovation at a two-day conference on foreign and national security policy. Army Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, struck a tone of cooperation on the transition between administrations.